Theni

Theni District is a district of Tamil Nadu state in South east India. The city of Theni is the district headquarters. The district is divided into two natural divisions: The hilly areas are constituted by parts of the three taluks Periyakulam, Uthamapalayam and Andipatti with thick vegetation and perennial streams from the hills on the western side and Cumbum valley which lies in Uthamapalayam taluk.As of 2011, Theni district had a population of 1,245,899 with a sex-ratio of 991 females for every 1,000 males

Theni District was formed by the bifurcation from erstwhile Madurai District as per G.O. Ms. No. 679 Revenue Department Dated July 7, 1996. Consequent to the bifurcation, one new Revenue Division with headquarters at Uthamapalayam and two new Taluks at Theni and Bodinayakanur were also created with effect from January 1, 1997. Theni Municipal town was only a firka headquarters until December 31, 1996. Consequent to the formation of the new District, Theni Municipal Town was upgraded as the Taluk and District headquarters on January 1, 1997.

The region covered by present-day Theni District was sparsely populated before the 1900s. In 1886 Mullaperiyar dam project bought some part of the water from Periyar River downhill to the Cumbum Valley and merged it into the Mullayar River. This project helped more people to settle down in Cumbum Valley. Also to be noted that Theni was itself was a small though lesser-known town by the 1900s. After the Mullay-Periyaar merger project lots of people from nearby dry arid regions (Sivakasi, Kovilpatti, Virudhunagar, Sattur and several nearby towns) settled in Cumbum-Valley (present day Theni District). So there was influx of people by the 1890s to 1920s. Bodi and Periyakulam were famous places at that time. Later Theni developed rapidly due to lots of business activities.

The forest area in Theni district is about 33.70%. There are 27 forest areas in Theni district constituting a total area of 795.81 km2 (307.26 sq mi). 19 areas fall under the Reserve Forest category with 255.44 km2 (98.63 sq mi), 8 areas under Reserve Land category with 540.37 km2 (208.64 sq mi). Total area of forest under green cover classification was 806.86 km2 (311.53 sq mi). Dense forest and Sparse forest are 292.81 km2 (113.05 sq mi) and 22.43 km2 (8.66 sq mi) respectively. There is no Unclassed Forest type in the district. About 44.65 km2 (17.24 sq mi) of Man Made Forest Area are cultivated in the district. Wattle, Softwood, Fuel wood, Cashew, Neem, Tamarind are the main forest plantation species in Theni district.

According to 2011 census, Theni district had a population of 1,245,899 with a sex-ratio of 991 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929.The district has diverse ethnic group majority being Tamils A total of 119,661 were under the age of six, constituting 61,873 males and 57,788 females. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 20.72% and .15% of the population respectively. The average literacy of the district was 69.84%, compared to the national average of 72.99%.The district had a total of 338,112 households. There were a total of 591,642 workers, comprising 36,371 cultivators, 275,585 main agricultural labourers, 12,714 in house hold industries, 205,921 other workers, 61,051 marginal workers, 1,996 marginal cultivators, 39,576 marginal agricultural labourers, 2,225 marginal workers in household industries and 17,254 other marginal workers.