Thiruvananthapuram

Thiruvananthapuram District is the southernmost district of the coastal state of Kerala . It is the largest city in kerala. It came into existence in the year 1957. The headquarters is the city of Thiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum) which is also the capital city of Kerala.

The district has an area of 2,192 square kilometres (846 sq mi) and a population of 3,307,284 (as per the 2011 census), the second-most populous district in Kerala after Malappuram district.It is the densest district in Kerala with 1,509 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,910/sq mi).It is divided into six taluks: Thiruvananthapuram, Chirayinkeezhu, Neyyattinkara, Nedumangadu, Varkala and Kattakada. The urban bodies in the district are the Thiruvananthapuram Corporation, Varkala, Neyyattinkara, Attingal and Nedumangad municipalities.

Thiruvananthapuram district is situated between north latitudes 8°17′ and 8°54′ and east longitudes 76°41′ and 77°17′. The southern-most extremity, Kaliyikkavila, is 56 kilometres (35 mi) away from Kanyakumari, the “Land’s End of mainland India.”The district is 33.75% urbanised.

The district has three major rivers, several freshwater lakes and more than 300 ponds. The eastern region is forested, northern regions are mostly under rubber cultivation and the remaining areas have mixed dry land crops of coconut, plantain, tapioca, etc. Built up areas and rice fields complete the land use.

Thiruvananthapuram city and several other places in the district loom large in ancient tradition, folklore and literature.In 1684, during the regency of Umayamma Rani, the English East India Company obtained a sandy spit of land at Anchuthengu near Varkala on the sea coast about 32 kilometres (20 mi) north of Thiruvananthapuram city, with a view to erecting a factory and fortifying it. The place had earlier been frequented by the Portuguese and later by the Dutch. It was from here that the English gradually extended their domain to other parts of Travancore.

Modern history begins with Marthanda Varma, 1729 CE–1758 CE, who is generally regarded as the Father of modern Travancore. Thiruvananthapuram was known as a great center of intellectual and artistic activities in those days.

The temple of Vishnu reclining on Anantha, the Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple, which dates back to the 16th century, is the most-recognizable iconic landmark of the city as well as the district. Along with the presiding deity of Padmanabha, this temple has temples inside it, dedicated to Lord Krishna, Lord Narasimha, Lord Ganesha, and Lord Ayyappa. The temple was built by King Marthanda Varma of the Travancore royal family when, in 1745, he shifted the Travancore capital from Padmanabhapuram, which is now in Tamil Nadu. King Marthanda Varma started reigning as ‘Sree Padmanabhadasa’, the Slave of Sree Padmanabha. The vast temple complex, with its tall Gopuram decorated with detailed carvings reflected in the huge temple tank, is today a center of attraction for the pious, the tourist, and the merely curious.

The city was the capital of the Travancore state before India’s independence. Consequent to the recommendations of the state Reorganization Commission, the Vilavancode taluk from Thiruvananthapuram was merged with Tamil Nadu, along with three other southern taluks of Thovala, Agastheewaram and Kalkulam from Travancore which eventually formed the Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu. The state of Kerala came into being on 1 November 1956.

The district is situated between North latitudes at 8.17°–8.54° and East longitudes 76.41°–77.17°. The southern-most extremity, Parassala, is just 54 kilometres (34 mi) away from the southern peninsular tip of India, Cape Comorin (Kanya Kumari). The district stretches 78 kilometres (48 mi) along the shores of the Arabian Sea on the west, Kollam district lies on the north with Tirunelveli and Kanyakumari districts of Tamil Nadu on the east and south respectively.

The economy of Thiruvananthapuram district mostly consists of tourism and leisure, information technology, agriculture and education.The modern economy of Thiruvananthapuram is dependent on the media and IT sector. India’s first animation park, The Kinfra Animation Park, is in the district.

According to the 2011 census Thiruvananthapuram district has a population of 3,307,284, roughly equal to the nation of Uruguay or the US state of Connecticut.This gives it a ranking of 103rd in India (out of a total of 640 districts).The district has a population density of 1,509 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,910/sq mi).Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 2.25%.Thiruvananthapuram has a sex ratio of 1088 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 92.66%.

The district has a rich variety of plants ranging from rare orchids, medicinal plants and spices to hedge plants, tuber crops, plants yielding edible fruits and fibre. Aromatic plants and spices such as pepper and ginger are cultivated on a large scale on the hilly tracts. Nedumangad taluka is one of the biggest centres of cultivation and trade of pepper and other hill produce. A major portion of the district comes under the middle plain and the region is under the cultivation of coconut, rice, tapioca, tuber crops, plantains and vegetabless.