Ujjain

Ujjain is the largest city in Ujjain district of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is the administrative center of Ujjain district and Ujjain division.

An ancient city situated on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River, Ujjain was the most prominent city on the Malwa plateau of central India for much of its history. It emerged as the political centre of central India around 600 BCE. It was the capital of the ancient Avanti kingdom, one of the sixteen mahajanapadas. It remained an important political, commercial and cultural centre of central India until early 19th century, when the British administrators decided to develop Indore as an alternative to it. Ujjain continues to be an important place of pilgrimage for Shaivites, Vaishnavites and followers of Shakta.

Ujjain has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi’s flagship Smart Cities Mission.

Excavations at Kayatha (around 26 km from Ujjain) have revealed chalcolithic agricultural settlements dating to around 2000 BCE. According to Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, Avanti, whose capital was Ujjain, “was one of the earliest outposts in central India” and showed signs of early urbanization around 700 BCE. Around 600 BCE, Ujjain emerged as the political, commercial and cultural centre of Malwa plateau.

The ancient walled city of Ujjain was located around the Garh Kalika hill on the bank of river Kshipra, in the present-day suburban areas of the Ujjain city. This city covered an irregular pentagonal area of 0.875 km2. It was surrounded by a 12 m high mud rampart. The archaeological investigations have also indicated the presence of a 45 m wide and 6.6 m deep moat around the city. According to F. R. Allchin and George Erdosy, these city defenses were constructed between 6th and 4th centuries BCE. Dieter Schlingloff believes that these were built before 600 BCE. This period is characterized by structures made of stone and burnt-brick, tools and weapons made of iron, and black and red burnished ware.

Ujjain is located in the west-central part of India, and is north of the upper limit of the Vindhya mountain ranges. Located on the Malwa plateau, it is higher than the north Indian plains and the land rises towards the Vindhya Range to the south. Ujjain’s coordinate are 23°10′N 75°46′E with average elevation of 494m metres (1620 ft).Region is an extension of the Deccan Traps, formed between 60 and 68 million years ago at the end of the Cretaceous period. The city is on the river bank of Shipra which falls into nearby flowing Chambal.

According to the 2011 census Ujjain has a population of 515,215 of which male are 264,871 and female are 250,344 respectively with sex ratio is 945 per 1000 males and child sex ratio of girls is 929 per 1000 boys. The city has children between (0-6)are 58,972 and There were 30,573 boys while 28,399 are girls which forms 11.45% of total population of City.According to the 2011 census Ujjain has a population of 515,215 of which male are 264,871 and female are 250,344 respectively with sex ratio is 945 per 1000 males and child sex ratio of girls is 929 per 1000 boys. The city has children between (0-6)are 58,972 and There were 30,573 boys while 28,399 are girls which forms 11.45% of total population of City.

The Government of Madhya Pradesh has allotted 1,200 acres for the development of an industrial area on the Dewas-Ujjain Road near Narwar village. Originally named “Vikramaditya Knowledge City”, the area was envisaged as an educational hub. But due to diminished investment prospects, it was renamed to “Vikram Udyog Nagari” (“Vikram Industrial City”). As of 2014, the government has conceptualized it as a half-industrial, half-educational area. The stakeholders in the project include the state government and the Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC) Trust

The city has a Government Hospital, TB Hospital and Ruxmaniben Deepchand Gardi Medical College.